The Uluburun[1] shipwreck: an overview (2023)

Cited by (179)

  • Lead in the Levant during the Late Bronze and early Iron Ages

    2022, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports

    Probably due to its relative scarcity in the archaeological record of the Late Bronze and early Iron Ages, lead is seldom the focus of archaeometallurgical research on these periods. In the current study we turn to legacy lead isotope data in order to provenance lead artifacts from Eastern Mediterranean contexts, dated to the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE. These data shed new light on the circulation of lead in the Eastern Mediterranean prior, during and after the collapse of the Bronze Age global trade systems. We provide further support to the notion that lead from Sardinia was circulating in Eastern Mediterranean markets and reached the Levant already during the Late Bronze Age. We found that this trade was more common in the South-eastern Mediterranean (in comparison to the North-eastern Mediterranean), probably as the result of geopolitical circumstances related to the distinct spheres of influence of Egypt and Hatti at that time. Moreover, it seems that lead from Sardinia was continuously shipped towards the east also in the face of the changing geo-economical dynamics during the transition between the Bronze and Iron Ages. The data were obtained mostly through the OXALID database. The current paper also aims at emphasizing the importance of shared open access databases for lead isotopes in archaeometallurgical research.

  • Polymer-supported first-row transition metal schiff base complexes: Efficient catalysts for epoxidation of alkenes

    2022, Reactive and Functional Polymers

    This review recapitulates current progress in the synthesis of unsupported (US) and polymer-supported (PS) first row transition metal (Tm) Schiff base complexes and their catalytic activities for epoxidation of alkenes. PSTm complexes have shown higher activity with respect to their unsupported analogs. The polymer-supported Schiff base complexes of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn ions were used as catalysts for epoxidation of different alkenes such as limonene, cyclohexene, styrene, cis-stilbene, trans-stilbene, verbenone, linear alkene, cyclooctene, α-methyl styrene and α-pinene. The activity of PSTm supported by diversified Schiff bases and different types of oxidants were studied and are presented in this review. In addition to this, recyclability of PSTm and unsupported Schiff base 3d transition metal complexes were also presented for more clarity about the complexes. Based on the literature reported, the mechanism of epoxidation has been given. This review about polymer-supported first-row transition metal complexes towards epoxidation of alkenes will be very useful to the material as well as catalytic researchers for its uniqueness in comparison to unsupported catalysts as well as with metals of the periodic table. Finally, challenges and opportunities are given for future study.

  • Incised Late Bronze Age lead ingots from the southern anchorage of Caesarea

    2022, Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports

    Four lead ingots were found as part of a shipwreck cargo in the southern anchorage of Caesarea in Israel. Analysis of the lead and a study of the markings incised on three of them are presented here for the first time. Four Cypro-Minoan signs are identified and paralleled with signs found on Late Cypriot artefacts. Lead isotope analysis indicates that the lead originated in Sardinia. Such an origin was indicated by earlier analyses of lead ingots from other cargoes along the Carmel coast, as well as by additional lead objects from Cyprus and other regions around the eastern Mediterranean. The Caesarea ingots, together with the latter, highlight the role of the Cypriots in the Mediterranean Late Bronze Age metal trade, and date their involvement to the 13th–early 12th century BCE. Rather than a specific connection between Cyprus and Sardinia at this time, as previously reconstructed, a broader commercial network and heightened involvement of the Cypriots in regional and supra-regional exchange in the eastern Mediterranean are suggested.

    (Video) The Uluburun Shipwreck
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Recommended articles (6)

  • Research article

    Radiocarbon dating and the Naqada relative chronology

    Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 46, 2014, pp. 319-323

    (Video) Mini: Nefertiti and the Wreck of the Uluburun

    The Naqada relative chronology provides the main cultural framework for the Predynastic period of ancient Egypt. It was devised in the late nineteenth century by Flinders Petrie to improve understanding of the prehistoric origins of the Egyptian state. Petrie's approach became widely known and formed the basis for the development of seriation. In this study, we test the reliability of the Naqada relative chronology as a dating tool against all the relevant radiocarbon information. The results show that the main blocks of the relative sequence do form a true chronology, but also indicate that the system is much less reliable at the level of individual phases. We discuss the nature of the discrepancies and the broader influence of the relative chronology on current understanding of Early Egypt.

  • Research article

    Copper ingots from a probable Bronze Age shipwreck off the coast of Salcombe, Devon: Composition and microstructure

    Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 97, 2018, pp. 102-117

    The seabed site of a probable Bronze Age shipwreck off the coast of Salcombe in south-west England was explored between 1977 and 1982 and from 2004 onwards. Nearly 400 objects including copper and tin ingots, bronze artefacts/fragments and gold ornaments were found, typologically dating either to c. 1300–1150 BC or 1000–800 BC. The 280 copper and 40 tin plano-convex ingots and ingot fragments represent the largest discovery, measured by total weight as well as by quantity, of plano-convex or bun ingots in northwest Europe. The Salcombe copper ingots provided a wonderful opportunity for the technical study of copper ingots in a probable shipwreck context, as opposed to terrestrial contexts of deliberate deposition. The chemical composition of 25 plano-convex copper ingots was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Two artefacts from the site were also analysed for comparison with the ingots. Following the compositional analysis, a microstructural study was carried out on ten Salcombe copper ingots selected to cover those with different sizes, shapes and variable impurity levels using metallography and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS).

    All the analysed copper ingots are of unalloyed copper with low levels of impurities. Sulphide inclusions are present in all samples and bulk sulphur contents are of 0.32–0.79% in the ingots but lower in the artefacts. The Salcombe ingots were found to have a quite similar impurity pattern to the Hertford Heath (England) ingots (except for iron content). They are distinctly different from the Uluburun ingots, and, to a lesser degree, from Sardinian ingots. The results are inconclusive as to how the Salcombe ingots were made. On the one hand, the very low concentration of iron and the absence of cuprite inclusions suggest that the ingots were primary smelting products of the primitive smelting process rather than produced from re-melting or refining of primary smelting lumps. On the other hand, the dense metal with very low porosity suggests the product of refining and re-casting operations under reducing conditions. However, the small ingots are not likely to have resulted from breaking of large ingots. The chemical compositions of the Salcombe ingots point to British or Western European sources although the connection with other regions cannot be excluded for some of the ingots. Further studies including lead isotope analysis are needed to address the question of provenance of the copper ingots, which would contribute to the re-emerging debates surrounding the European Bronze Age metal trade.

    (Video) The Ships that Changed History Lecture 2 Cemal Pulak on Uluburun

  • Research article

    To put a cedar ship in a bottle: Dendroprovenancing three ancient East Mediterranean watercraft with the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio

    Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, Volume 9, 2016, pp. 514-521

    This paper presents the latest provenance results of cedar wood (Cedrus sp.) from three ancient watercraft: the Carnegie boat (Middle Kingdom Egypt), the wrecked merchant ship at Uluburun (Bronze Age Mediterranean), and the galley comprising the Athlit Ram (Hellenistic Mediterranean). Comparing the ratios of 87Sr/86Sr of the archaeological wood and cedar from modern forests has helped augment the existing hypotheses pertaining to where the wood used in the construction of these vessels originated. The results demonstrate that strontium isotopic analysis can provide valuable information to assist wood provenance research in ancient and maritime contexts, which in turn may elucidate ancient forestry and shipbuilding practices.

  • Research article

    Study of the influence of physical, chemical and biological conditions that influence the deterioration and protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage

    Science of The Total Environment, Volumes 613–614, 2018, pp. 98-114

    Two wrecks related to the Battle of Trafalgar (1805) were studied. Following the guidelines of the UNESCO-2001 Convention for the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach based on the development of four of the thirty-six Rules of this international agreement was applied. A non-destructive survey technique was developed to obtain information from the scattered cannons and anchors without altering their condition (Rule 4). The work performed provided information about the origin of both wrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, two ships of the line of the French Navy, and allowed to characterize the state of conservation at each site without jeopardizing their future conservation in the marine environment. In addition, measurements of the main physical, chemical and biological variables allowed correlating the conservation status at each site with the marine environmental conditions (Rule 15). Thus, in Fougueux shipwreck large iron objects are corroding at a higher rate (between 0.180 and 0.246mmpy) due to high sediment remobilization and transport induced by waves at this site, causing damage by direct mechanical effect on metallic material and by removing the layer of corrosion products developed on the artefacts. Meanwhile artillery on Bucentaure site, covered with thick layers of biological concretion, is well preserved, with lower corrosion rates (0.073 to 0.126mmpy), and archaeological information is guaranteed. Finally, the effectiveness of the cathodic protection as a temporary measure for in situ conservation (Rule 1) was evaluated on a cannon. The use of a sacrificial anode after 9months reduced the average corrosion rate (from 0.103 to 0.064mmpy) and the percent of corrosion rate in 37.9%. These results are very useful for developing a decision making system of the Site Management Program, based on predictive models of artefacts permanence and risk factors in the marine environment (Rule 25).

  • Research article

    Copper for the Pharaoh: Identifying multiple metal sources for Ramesses' workshops from bronze and crucible remains

    Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 80, 2017, pp. 50-73

    (Video) SASA Ancient FanFiction- The Uluburun shipwreck (Part 1)

    The origin of copper used in Late Bronze Age (LBA) Egypt is very poorly understood despite its cultural and economic importance attested in archaeological and historical sources. Extensive literature discusses major LBA copper sources such as Cyprus (oxhide ingots), Oman (bun ingots) and Egyptian-controlled sites in the Sinai. This paper presents new chemical and lead isotope data for Egyptian copper alloys excavated in several bronze production workshops from the New Kingdom capital Pi-Ramesse, expanding on earlier data from Amarna. Supporting data is obtained from the analysis of crucible remains from the same context, for which the potential contribution of lead isotope analysis is critically evaluated.

    Diachronic changes in the provisioning of these Egyptian workshops are discussed, incorporating an extensive overview of currently known Egyptian mining and metallurgy. The results have major implications for our understanding of LBA copper circulation in the wider region, for the first time analysing a major Egyptian ‘consumer’ assemblage.

    The analytical results reveal a complex picture of variable copper supply to the Ramesside workshops, which involved both the recycling of existing bronzes and the use of freshly smelted copper from various origins to produce fresh alloys. Importantly, this includes crucial new evidence for the melting of (Cypriot) oxhide ingot fragments in crucibles for alloying.

    The royal, internationally connected nature of these workshops makes Pi-Ramesse an exceptional case study of LBA metal trade, and hypotheses raised in this paper highlight the need for more extensive analysis of ancient Egyptian copper artefacts to grasp metal circulation throughout Egypt's long history. More refined frameworks, incorporating the variety of private as well as royal contexts, will improve understanding of Egypt's ancient economic organisation. This paper offers new perspectives onto LBA metal supply and consumption networks, with broader archaeological interpretative models of economic and political interactions across the wider ancient Near East.

  • Research article

    Deep sea archaeological survey in the Black Sea – Robotic documentation of 2,500 years of human seafaring

    Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, Volume 152, 2019, Article 103087

    Between 2015 and 2017 the Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project (Black Sea MAP) discovered and recorded 65 shipwreck sites dating from the 4th Century BC to the 19th Century AD in the Bulgarian Exclusive Economical Zone (EEZ). Using state-of-the-art remotely operated vehicles to survey the seabed, the team captured more than 250,000 high-definition (HD) photographs; hundreds of hours of ultra high-definition (UHD) video together with acoustic bathymetric, laser, side-scan sonar and seismic data. The wrecks were located in depths from 40 to 2200 m – those shipwrecks in the deeper range presented extraordinary archaeological preservation due to the Black Sea's anoxic conditions. This paper will introduce the range of deep-sea optic and acoustic survey techniques to accurately record and create 3D and pseudo 4D models of the shipwrecks. It will focus on a Early 4th Century BC shipwreck demonstrating the project's survey strategy as well as adaptations developed in response to operational conditions; the implementation of deep sea robotics to generate georeferenced high-resolution photogrammetric models and the benefits this has as an on-site, as well as a post-cruise, interpretative tool. It demonstrates that in-theatre acquisition and processing of high-quality datasets is a working reality and has fundamental implications for management as well as the advantages that this brings to the archaeological research process: Firstly, in the creation of spatio-temporal models, i.e., 4D representations of a site pre and post archaeological excavation and secondly, in monitoring such wreck sites, and provides a viable non-intervention tool for the assessment of sites as part of a long-term management strategy. It also shows the value of well-funded collaboration between academia and industry and that deep water archaeology can and must be totally in accordance to the 2011 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) convention.

    (Video) Uluburun Shipwreck

Copyright © 1998 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


What were the contents of the Uluburun shipwreck? ›

Miscellaneous cargo
  • Logs of blackwood from Africa (referred to as ebony by the Egyptians)
  • Ivory in the form of whole and partial hippopotamus and elephant tusks.
  • More than a dozen hippopotamus teeth.
  • Tortoise carapaces (upper shells)
  • Murex opercula (possible ingredient for incense)
  • Ostrich eggshells.
  • Cypriot pottery.

What was the significance of the Uluburun shipwreck? ›

The Uluburun Shipwreck proves a significant archaeological find; the historical information archaeologists may ascertain from the wreckage more precious than any copper ingots. The TimeMapper program was extremely useful for visualizing the connections between trading powers in the Late Bronze Age.

What is the dendrochronological dating of the Uluburun ship? ›

There is not a dendrochronological date for the Ulu Burun shipwreck, but there is a date for a piece of scrap (possibly very old) wood which was found on board.

What was the Uluburun shipwreck and late Bronze Age trade? ›

The Uluburun shipwreck was excavated by INA over 11 seasons between 1984 and 1994, with more than 22,000 dives logged to depths in excess of 150 feet. The Uluburun ship was transporting a bulk cargo of copper and tin ingots, in the usual ratio of 10:1 to produce bronze.

What was one of the most significant objects found on the Uluburun shipwreck? ›

The largest item was copper ingots, 348 of them, totalling 10 tons in weight. These took the form of 'oxhide' and circular buns, which refers to the shape they had, forms common in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. Lead isotope analysis revealed the ingots were pure copper and from Cyprus.

What does the Uluburun shipwreck provide us with? ›

The archaeologists in Turkey would find one of the most amazing things in human history: the world's oldest known shipwreck. This caught the eye of the Institute of Nautical Archaeology. The mysterious shipwreck, known as the Uluburun shipwreck, gives us a glimpse into the lavish lives of the Ancient World aristocrats.

Who discovered the Uluburun shipwreck? ›

The Uluburun Shipwreck is a Late Bronze Age shipwreck dated to the late 14th century BC, discovered close to the east shore of Uluburun (Grand Cape), in south-western Turkey not far from today's Bodrum. The shipwreck was discovered in the summer of 1982 by Mehmed Çakir, a local sponge diver.

What is the origin of Uluburun? ›

That analysis suggested that the Uluburun tin may have come from two sources — the Kestel Mine in Turkey's Taurus Mountains and some unspecified location in central Asia.

Is Uluburun one of the oldest and wealthiest shipwrecks ever discovered? ›

The Uluburun is a 3,300-year-old shipwreck discovered off the coast of Uluburun (Grand Cape), near Kaş in south-western Turkey. It is among the oldest ships ever discovered and contained one of the wealthiest and largest known assemblages of Late Bronze Age items found in the Mediterranean.

Why is the shipwreck discovered in 1982 at Uluburun off the Turkish coast significant? ›

Discovered in 1982 off the southern Turkish coast, the Uluburun shipwreck (c. 1320 BC) yielded ten metric tonnes of Cypriot copper ingots and one metric tonne of tin ingots – the world's largest Bronze Age assemblage of raw metals ever found.

What is the oldest shipwreck ever found? ›

A Greek merchant ship discovered more than a mile under the surface of the Black Sea has been radiocarbon dated to 2,400 years ago, making it the world's oldest known intact shipwreck.

What is the oldest sunken ship found? ›

The discovery of the ancient Greek shipwreck “Odysseus,” thought to be the oldest of its kind ever found, at the bottom of the Black Sea could change our understanding of shipbuilding and seafaring in the ancient world.

When was the Uluburun shipwreck found? ›

Accidentally discovered by a Turkish sponge diver in 1982, the remains of the 3,300-year-old Uluburun shipwreck lie 10km off the coast of southern Turkey.

What triggered the Bronze Age collapse? ›

The traditional explanation for the sudden collapse of these powerful and interdependent civilizations was the arrival, at the turn of the 12th century B.C., of marauding invaders known collectively as the "Sea Peoples," a term first coined by the 19th-century Egyptologist Emmanuel de Rougé.

What is the oldest shipwreck in Turkey? ›

It is 200 years older than the Greek merchant ship that was discovered in the Bulgarian Black Sea last year, which is also being hailed at the oldest intact wreck in the world. The exact location of the “Western Antalya Wreck” has not be disclosed in order to prevent looting.

What is the most valuable shipwreck ever found? ›

The San Jose – The Holy Grail of Sunken Treasures (1708) – $17 billion. One of the most precious shipwrecks in the world, the site of which remained unknown for over three centuries, was revealed in photographs by the Colombian army.

What is the most famous unfound shipwreck? ›

What is the most popular unfound shipwreck in the world? Flor de la Mar is the most famous shipwreck, filled with diamonds, gold and other riches.

What is the most famous shipwreck? ›

RMS Titanic

The supposedly "unsinkable" ocean liner set sail on its maiden voyage on 10 April 1912 only to hit an iceberg just before midnight on 14 April and sank in less than three hours. Claiming 1,514 lives, it is often remembered as one of the most famous and tragic shipwrecks in history.

What is the main idea of shipwreck at the bottom of the world? ›

Summary: "Describes the events of the 1914 Shackleton Antarctic expedition when, after being trapped in a frozen sea for nine months, their ship, Endurance, was finally crushed, forcing Shackleton and his men to make a very long and perilous journey across ice and stormy seas to reach inhabited land."

What can we learn about the past from shipwrecks? ›

Studying shipwrecks can help us understand the past, connect us to our cultural heritage, and teach us lessons on how the environment and human error can impact each other.

What are the effects of shipwreck? ›

Shipwrecks as an environmental problem

Toxic substances such as oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH:s) and heavy metals are taken up by microorganisms and transferred up the food chain to fish and crustaceans. Several shipwrecks contain large volumes of oil that can, when it leaks out, damage large areas.

What famous shipwreck was found in 1989? ›

A second expedition was mounted in late May 1989, and on 8 June, 1989, after combing an area of some 200 square miles, Ballard and his team finally found Bismarck's remains. The wreck lies in the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean some 470 miles west of Brest at a depth of 4,790 meters (15,700 feet). The State of the Wreck.

How old is gobekli? ›

At around 12,000 years old, Göbekli Tepe in south-east Turkey has been billed as the world's oldest temple. It is many millennia older than Stonehenge or Egypt's great pyramids, built in the pre-pottery Neolithic period before writing or the wheel.

When was gobekli discovered? ›

Göbekli Tepe
Excavation dates1995–present
ArchaeologistsKlaus Schmidt Necmi Karul Lee Clare
20 more rows

Who discovered Göbekli Tepe? ›

Discovered in 1994 by the German archaeologist Klaus Schmidt, Gobekli Tepe is composed of pillars formed into concentric rings built on top of each other. It is the oldest manmade religious complex ever discovered, and its use has been dated as far back as 9600 B.C.E.

What famous shipwrecks have not been found? ›

Here are four of these wrecks just waiting to be discovered:
  • The Merchant Royal. In 1641, the Merchant Royal sank off the coast of Cornwall due to bad weather. ...
  • The Santa Maria. ...
  • The Flor de la Mar. ...
  • Las Cinco Chagas.

What shipwreck has the most gold? ›

The latest photographs and video of the wreck of the San José treasure galleon were released by the Colombian navy on June 6. The ship was loaded with an estimated $17 billion worth of gold, silver and jewels when it sank in 1708, and its wreck was only discovered in 2015.

What is the deepest shipwreck known to man? ›

It is just over a year since the WWII destroyer USS Johnston was confirmed to be the world's deepest shipwreck, found lying on the seabed 6,468.6 m (21,222 ft) below the surface.

What was America's biggest shipwreck? ›

An official providing an update on the Golden Ray wreck removal off the coast of Georgia said it is the largest in United States history and required more than 3 million collective man-hours. The 656-foot cargo ship was carrying 4,100 vehicles when it capsized in St.

What is the scariest shipwreck in the world? ›

The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most famous and deadliest of all time. The British passenger liner met its fate in 1912 after hitting an iceberg on its maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City. More than 1,500 people died and an estimated 705 were rescued.

How many abandoned ships are floating in the ocean? ›

In 2020 the International Maritime Organization (IMO) database listed 438 ships worldwide, with 5,767 crew members, abandoned since 2004; not all cases are referred to the IMO, so the actual number is larger, but unknown.

How long can you survive in a sunken ship? ›

The physics of staying alive

If the pressurized air pocket were about 216 cubic feet (6 cubic m), Umansky reckoned, it would contain enough oxygen to keep Okene alive for about two-and-a-half days, or 60 hours.

What is the oldest shipwreck off the coast of Florida? ›

More… The San Pedro, a member of the 1733 Spanish treasure fleet caught by a hurricane in the Straits of Florida, sank in 18 feet of water one mile south of Indian Key. She is the oldest shipwreck on the Shipwreck Trail, with the mystique of a Spanish treasure shipwreck to draw divers and snorkelers alike. More…

Why did we stop using bronze? ›

Unlike tin, iron ore is readily available. So, although inferior to bronze, an army of hundreds or thousands could be equipped with iron weapons, which was not practical with bronze weapons. So, the ability to produce large numbers of iron weapons overcame the advantages of bronze.

How long did it take to recover from the Bronze Age collapse? ›

That said, most of the states involved in this network fell into ruin between 1200 - 1100 BCE. The great empires collapsed, a collapse that it took about 100 years to recover from, with new empires arising in the aftermath.

Who were the Sea Peoples that ended the Bronze Age? ›

Definition. The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. They are considered one of the major contributing causes to the Bronze Age Collapse (c.

What is the biggest shipwreck in the world? ›

In 1944, the USS Johnston sank after a battle against the world's largest battleship. More than 75 years later, her wreck was finally located, 6km (3.7 miles) below the waves. On 23 October 1944, the first engagements of a gigantic naval battle began in Leyte Gulf, part of the Philippine Sea.

What old ship has just been found? ›

Dr Michelle Taylor from Essex University said: "The Endurance, looking like a ghost ship, is sprinkled with an impressive diversity of deep-sea marine life - stalked sea squirts, anemones, sponges of various forms, brittlestars, and crinoids (related to urchins and sea stars), all filter feeding nutrition from the cool ...

What is the most intact shipwreck? ›

The Burgas shipwreck was a Greek trading vessel, dating from 400BC, and is currently the oldest intact shipwreck ever discovered.

What did the Uluburun shipwreck found off the coast of Turkey contain amber from? ›

It contained many products from Canaan (149 amphorae). Geographically, it is likely the ship sailed from a Canaanite port (probably Ugarit).

What artifacts were found at Gobekli Tepe? ›

Aside from skull fragments found at the site, depictions of people carrying skulls, headless humans, and headless statues have also popped up at Gobekli Tepe.

What famous shipwreck was found? ›

Shackleton's Famous Antarctic Shipwreck Finally Discovered in The World's 'Worst Sea' Explorers have found one of the most famous shipwrecks in history, Ernest Shackleton's Endurance, deep in the icy sea off Antarctica more than a century after it sank, they announced Wednesday.

What weapons were on the Uluburun? ›

Weapons: Arrowheads, spearheads, maces, daggers, lugged shaft-hole axe. Four bronze swords (Canaanite, Mycenaean, and Italian(?) types). Tools: A large number of tools included sickles, awls, drill bits, a saw, a pair of tongs, chisels, axes, a ploughshare, whetstones, and adzes.

What is the most infamous shipwreck? ›

RMS Titanic

The supposedly "unsinkable" ocean liner set sail on its maiden voyage on 10 April 1912 only to hit an iceberg just before midnight on 14 April and sank in less than three hours. Claiming 1,514 lives, it is often remembered as one of the most famous and tragic shipwrecks in history.

How much of Göbekli Tepe is still buried? ›

“The site unearthed until today is not even 10 percent of all the complex that is still underground,” Necmi Karul, a member of the Göbeklitepe Science Board, told Demirören News Agency. “Göbeklitepe gets the interest of people it deserves,” he said. “There are now around eight excavation works in the area.”

Have human bones been found at Göbekli Tepe? ›

Although human burials are still absent from Göbekli Tepe, a considerable number of fragmented human bones (n = 691) have been recovered. Notably, most of the human bone fragments (n = 408) stem from the skull, whereas postcranial fragments are less frequent (n = 283).

Why was the discovery of Göbekli Tepe so important? ›

Archaeological Importance

Göbekli Tepe is one of the most spectacular prehistoric megalithic monuments in the world due to its great antiquity, (late 11th and early 10th millennia BC), its limestone megalithic buildings, the shaping of the stones, and imagery found on many of the stones and T-pillars found at the site.


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2. Uluburun Shipwreck Animation
3. Uluburun Shipwreck: Mycenaean Treasury at the Bottom of the Sea
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4. World's oldest intact shipwreck discovered
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